Tuberculosis is a disease that is widespread throughout the world and is caused by various types of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria, more commonly known as Koch’s bacillus. As a rule, tuberculosis affects the lungs of a person, but it can also affect other organs. Not so long ago, the disease was almost incurable. Nowadays, there is a special set of measures aimed at the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis in its early stages.
The disease is classified, taking into account the present clinical and radiological signs of tuberculosis, the localization of the pathological process and its occurrence and course.
Such forms of the disease are distinguished as:
- tuberculosis intoxication in children and adolescents;
- respiratory tuberculosis;
- tuberculosis of other organs and systems.
- In turn, tuberculosis of the respiratory system is divided into:
- pulmonary tuberculosis with the formation of multiple foci;
- affecting the intrathoracic lymph nodes;
- focal pulmonary tuberculosis;
- caseous pneumonia;
- pulmonary tuberculoma;
- cavernous pulmonary tuberculosis;
- cirrhotic form;
- damage to the bronchi, trachea, upper respiratory tract;
- tuberculosis combined with occupational pulmonary pathologies;
- fibro-cavernous form of lung damage;
- tuberculous pleurisy.
- In addition, tuberculosis affects:
- brain structures and central nervous system;
- intestines and retroperitoneal space;
- bones and joints;
- genitourinary system;
- skin and layers of subcutaneous tissue;
- peripheral lymph nodes;
- eyes and other organs.
Tuberculosis is also divided by phase (infiltration, decay, seeding) and bacterial excretion (with the release of pathogenic bacteria and without it).
Causes and consequences of the disease
To date, 74 species of tuberculosis bacteria have been identified. However, a person is struck by an exclusively conditionally isolated complex that combines the human species of the pathogen, the bovine species and the BCG species.
Tuberculosis caused by various pathogens varies quite a lot among themselves. The main species sign of tubercle bacillus is its pathogenicity, which manifests itself in its ability to infect the host organism.
Once in the body, the Koch’s stick practically with a 100% probability remains in the human body, creating the so-called “hidden reservoir”. This explains the impossibility of eliminating the disease or reducing the incidence in the near future.
According to statistics, every tenth carrier of tubercle bacillus suffers from an active form of pathology and can infect up to 15 people in a year.
- There are the following transmission routes for tuberculosis (including pulmonary tuberculosis):
- The most common way of infection is airborne ; mycobacteria get into the air with a cough or sneeze of an infected person, when talking;
- Alimentary infection occurs when a pathogen enters the body through the digestive tract;
- Contact transmission of the disease through the mucous membranes and in particular the conjunctiva of the eye;
- intrauterine infection is a very rare way of infection; the infection is transmitted through placental lesions during pregnancy or childbirth.
The occurrence, course and outcome of tuberculosis
Specific “cold” inflammation characteristic of this disease develops in the organs affected by tuberculosis. Tuberculosis of the lungs and other organs is granulomatous in nature, in which tubercles are formed with a tendency to decay.
Usually, the body is resistant to the penetration of mycobacteria. The presence of inflammatory processes in the body, weakening of the immune system, worsening of the mucous membranes are the main causes of tuberculosis.
Clinical manifestations of the disease
At the first stages of development, pathology is often hidden. Symptoms of tuberculosis occur after seeding of the body and the formation of characteristic immunological activity.