Can Tuberculosis be cured?

Can Tuberculosis be cured

Tuberculosis is a disease that is widespread throughout the world and is caused by various types of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria, more commonly known as Koch’s bacillus. As a rule, tuberculosis affects the lungs of a person, but it can also affect other organs. Not so long ago, the disease was almost incurable. Nowadays, there is a special set of measures aimed at the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis in its early stages.

Pathology classification

The disease is classified, taking into account the present clinical and radiological signs of tuberculosis, the localization of the pathological process and its occurrence and course.

Can Tuberculosis be cured

Such forms of the disease are distinguished as:

  • tuberculosis intoxication in children and adolescents;
  • respiratory tuberculosis;
  • tuberculosis of other organs and systems.
  • In turn, tuberculosis of the respiratory system is divided into:
  • primary;
  • miliary;
  • pulmonary tuberculosis with the formation of multiple foci;
  • affecting the intrathoracic lymph nodes;
  • focal pulmonary tuberculosis;
  • infiltrative;
  • caseous pneumonia;
  • pulmonary tuberculoma;
  • cavernous pulmonary tuberculosis;
  • cirrhotic form;
  • damage to the bronchi, trachea, upper respiratory tract;
  • tuberculosis combined with occupational pulmonary pathologies;
  • fibro-cavernous form of lung damage;
  • tuberculous pleurisy.
  • In addition, tuberculosis affects:
  • brain structures and central nervous system;
  • intestines and retroperitoneal space;
  • bones and joints;
  • genitourinary system;
  • skin and layers of subcutaneous tissue;
  • peripheral lymph nodes;
  • eyes and other organs.

Tuberculosis is also divided by phase (infiltration, decay, seeding) and bacterial excretion (with the release of pathogenic bacteria and without it).

Causes and consequences of the disease

To date, 74 species of tuberculosis bacteria have been identified. However, a person is struck by an exclusively conditionally isolated complex that combines the human species of the pathogen, the bovine species and the BCG species.

Tuberculosis caused by various pathogens varies quite a lot among themselves. The main species sign of tubercle bacillus is its pathogenicity, which manifests itself in its ability to infect the host organism.

Once in the body, the Koch’s stick practically with a 100% probability remains in the human body, creating the so-called “hidden reservoir”. This explains the impossibility of eliminating the disease or reducing the incidence in the near future.

According to statistics, every tenth carrier of tubercle bacillus suffers from an active form of pathology and can infect up to 15 people in a year.

Infection pathways

  • There are the following transmission routes for tuberculosis (including pulmonary tuberculosis):
  • The most common way of infection is airborne  ; mycobacteria get into the air with a cough or sneeze of an infected person, when talking;
  • Alimentary  infection occurs when a pathogen enters the body through the digestive tract;
  • Contact transmission of the disease through the mucous membranes and in particular the conjunctiva of the eye;
  • intrauterine infection is a very rare way of infection; the infection is transmitted through placental lesions during pregnancy or childbirth.

The occurrence, course and outcome of tuberculosis

Specific “cold” inflammation characteristic of this disease develops in the organs affected by tuberculosis. Tuberculosis of the lungs and other organs is granulomatous in nature, in which tubercles are formed with a tendency to decay.

Usually, the body is resistant to the penetration of mycobacteria. The presence of inflammatory processes in the body, weakening of the immune system, worsening of the mucous membranes are the main causes of tuberculosis.

Clinical manifestations of the disease

At the first stages of development, pathology is often hidden. Symptoms of tuberculosis occur after seeding of the body and the formation of characteristic immunological activity.

What is tuberculosis? Symptoms, Prevention


Tuberculosis (consumption) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, often called Koch’s bacillus. The disease develops only in response to the multiplication of these microbes in the human body. When the modern reader comes across this name of the disease, then the majority has the image of a pale, exhausted, constantly coughing person. Most sincerely believe that they only become infected with tuberculosis in places not so remote, and if you are not a tramp, then you will not be affected by the disease. In fact, almost any person, with the exception of hermits who do not leave their homes, is at risk of infection, and therefore the possibility of contracting tuberculosis.

Tuberculosis is a problem for all of humanity. To date, about a third of the world’s population are infected with mycobacterium tuberculosis (this microorganism is the causative agent of tuberculosis). Every year, 1% of the world’s population is infected with tuberculosis. Approximately 8.4 million new cases of tuberculosis are reported annually and approximately 2 million people die from the disease.


Tuberculosis is not just a socially determined disease, but an infectious disease. A disease that is transmitted from person to person by airborne droplets, that is, by coughing and even talking. Unfortunately, it is not possible to determine the appearance of an epidemically dangerous patient.

Tuberculosis is not in vain called a “insidious” disease. And it is true! The expressed symptoms of the disease, alas, often appear only with irreversible changes in the lungs. In most cases, a person with tuberculosis feels satisfactory for a long time.

How can you get tuberculosis?

The main source of tuberculosis infection is a person who has pulmonary tuberculosis. Sputum containing mycobacterium tuberculosis is separated from the respiratory tract, especially during coughing. Small droplets of sputum can enter the respiratory tract of a healthy person nearby. Sputum can settle on the surface of the floor or the ground, on objects and things. An infection can get into the human body due to a violation of hygiene rules – for example, if you do not wash your hands after contact with the handrails in public transport or eat unwashed vegetables and fruits, poorly processed meat and unboiled milk.

How to protect yourself from the disease?

In order not to get sick with tuberculosis, you need to lead a healthy lifestyle. Good health requires a healthy nervous system, so it is important to avoid stress. The food must be complete, must contain a sufficient amount of protein. An important condition for maintaining health should be daily normal physical activity. Dusty, unventilated rooms favor the spread of tuberculosis bacteria. To prevent the disease, it is necessary to ventilate the premises.

How to determine that I have a disease?

The main symptoms characteristic of tuberculosis:

  • cough for 2-3 weeks or more;
  • chest pain;
  • weight loss;
  • the presence of blood in sputum;
  • sweating at night;
  • periodic increase in temperature;
  • general malaise and weakness;
  • enlarged peripheral lymph nodes.

If you find yourself with these symptoms, consult a doctor immediately!

Where can I get tested?

A chest x-ray can be done at the community clinic. If tuberculosis is suspected, the district doctor or specialist doctor after clinical examination will send a TB consultation to a TB dispensary.

Who should look for tuberculosis more often?

There are several vulnerable groups of citizens and professional categories of specialists, which, for various reasons, should be screened for tuberculosis more often. The rest of the population living in the republic, regardless of occupation and place of work, is subject to preventive examinations for tuberculosis at least 1 time per year. Such a need was introduced in the republic back in 2012 by the Decree of the Chief State Sanitary Doctor of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) dated July 24, 2012 No. 5 due to the fact that in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) there is an intense epidemic of tuberculosis in order to actively detect in a timely manner tuberculosis among the population.

And since 2014, in accordance with the requirements of the sanitary and epidemiological rules of SP “Prevention of tuberculosis” in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, municipalities with an incidence rate of tuberculosis of 60 or more cases per 100 thousand population per year – the population undergoes a preventive examination for tuberculosis at least 1 time per year.

 What happens when you inhale tubercle bacilli?

In most cases, if the human immune system is normal, inhaling tubercle bacilli does not lead to disease in the active stage. A whole army of defensive cells rushes to mycobacteria caught in the respiratory tract, which absorb and kill most of the pathogens. But some mycobacteria can survive and remain inactive for a long time. Thus, the “attack” of pathogens on the body remains without consequences. However, after months and even years, with weakened immunity as a result of some other disease, malnutrition or stress, tuberculosis bacteria begin to multiply, destroying the host cell with their mass and suggesting the development of active tuberculosis.

In some cases, the first time an infection enters the body, bacteria can multiply, causing serious damage to the lung tissue. These are cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis, which can become a source of further infection.

In a number of cases, pathogenic bacteria, once in the lungs, can be transported through the lymphatic vessels or with a blood stream to other parts of the body, entering the kidneys, bones and joints, the brain, etc. With good protective forces of the body, mycobacteria remain inactive for a long time, but with weakening of the body, tuberculosis can also develop in these parts of the body.

What can reduce the defenses of your body?

If too many tuberculosis bacilli-mycobacteria get into the airways, the body may not be able to cope with such an onslaught. If you communicate with a patient with tuberculosis for a long time, your body is constantly attacked, and there may come a time when it can no longer effectively resist infection. Other factors that contribute to the development of mycobacteria in the body are also known:

  • stress – mental or physical strain;
  • excessive consumption of alcohol;
  • smoking;
  • malnutrition or malnutrition;
  • other diseases that weaken the body.

Children, adolescents, pregnant women and older people are more susceptible to infection.

Malaria: treatment, prevention,diagnosis

Translated from Italian, “malaria” means “bad air”. This disease is a group of infectious diseases that can be transmitted to humans through the bite of an Anopheles mosquito. Malaria is accompanied by severe chills and fever, splenomegaly (enlarged spleen), enlarged liver. 400-500 million people become infected with malaria every year, and about 3 million die. The main causative agent of malaria are plasmodia – the simplest. For humans, only four species are pathogenic, namely, P. malariae and P. vivax, P. ovale and P. falciparum. It was found that infection occurs during injection or inoculation of a female mosquito (malaria) sporozoites into the blood or lymph system, which occurs during the process of bloodsucking.

After sporozoites enter the bloodstream, they begin to gradually penetrate the hepatocytes of the liver, thereby giving rise to the hepatic preclinical stage of the disease. At the stage of schizogony (asexual reproduction), even from one sporozoite, up to 40,000 merozoites or schizonts in the liver can arise. Usually, these merozoites enter the bloodstream after a few weeks. In those infections where the infection is caused by North African P. vivax strains, the first release of merozoites into the blood from the liver occurs, on average, in the tenth month after infection. This happens in those terms that coincide with the short-term period of the breeding of mosquitoes.


Symptoms of malaria  – a fever that occurs when a malaria parasite in a human blood reaches a certain level. The lowest concentration of parasites that can cause fever is called the “pyrogenic threshold”, which is measured by the number of malaria parasites in 1 μl of human blood.

The level of the pyrogenic threshold may depend on the specific properties of the body of each person and on how strong the immune system is. In the process of infection development, with the development of immunity, this threshold rises, and those people who are newly infected with malaria will get malaria with a higher level of parasites in the blood. At the initial infection, the level of the pyrogenic threshold can range from a couple of tens in 1 μl of blood, and in people who are ill again, or in partially immune people who came from a malarial area, the threshold is at the rate of several thousand malaria parasites in one μl of blood .

Types of Malaria

Four forms of the disease are distinguished: a three-day form, four-day malaria, oval malaria, and tropical.

All these forms are characterized by their own characteristics, but the general characteristics for each species are the presence of fever, anemia, and enlargement of the liver and spleen.

Three day malaria

Before the onset of the malaria attacks themselves, a headache , weakness, nausea, and sharp back pain appear  . The disease begins acutely. In the early days, the fever is wrong. After this, an intermittent-type fever is established, with a constant alternation of malaria attacks every other day. A malaria attack is characterized by a pronounced change in the main stages of heat and chills, and there is increased, excessive sweating. The heat lasts about four to six hours, however, there are cases when the heat lasts up to twelve hours and is replaced by a sharp sweating.

Malaria oval

This type of malaria is similar to three-day malaria, but the main difference is the milder course of oval malaria, in contrast to three-day malaria. Feverish attacks can occur every other day, and mainly in the evening. Relapses can be early and distant. The disease can last from three to four years.

Four day malaria

The spleen is enlarged moderately, in rare cases, anemia can develop. This form of the disease is characterized by a very low parasitemia, even at those moments when malaria is acute. Four-day malaria is characterized by a long course, from five to fifty years. During this time, plasmodia “live” in human blood, where a weak process of schizogony of an erythrocytic character proceeds.

Tropical malaria 

The incubation period can be at least a week, however, it can take up to two weeks. By the end of the incubation period, prodromal phenomena in the form of malaise and headache, fatigue begin. Vomiting and nausea, loss of appetite and chills are possible. An irregular type of fever occurs. Tropical malaria differs from other species in that it does not have chills and increased sweating characteristic of malaria, pain in the joints and muscles is practically absent.

How to prevent malaria?

Methods that it is important to use to prevent the development and widespread spread of the disease in areas that are endemic for malaria should include both medicines and the destruction of mosquitoes, the development of tools to protect against malicious bites. To date, a malaria vaccine has not yet been developed.



* Apply measures to protect against mosquito bites.

* Take drugs for the prevention of malaria before leaving the outbreak, the entire period of stay in the outbreak in the season when there is a risk of infection, and within 4 weeks after departure.

* Get acquainted with possible adverse reactions when taking antimalarial drugs and contraindications for their use.

* Learn the symptoms of malaria and be prepared for a possible disease, despite taking medications to prevent malaria.

It is necessary to have drugs for three courses of treatment for malaria when staying in the outbreak for 6 months. Always carry drugs in case emergency care is not possible.